AbstractIn the standard formulation of quantum field theory (QFT), where there are only positive energy particles and antiparticles, the energy and charge of the vacuum diverge, which, due to the existence of gravity, leads to the inconsistency of the theory (cosmological constant problem). In the article, it is shown that in the Stueckelberg-Feynman (SF) interpretation, where antiparticles are described as negative energy particles moving backward in time, the zero-point energy and zero-point charge of vacuum of complex fields are absent and there is no cosmological constant problem. However, until now it was believed that the SF interpretation leads to negative probabilities and incompatible with QFT. In the article, it is presented a new formulation of QFT on the basis of the SF interpretation in the form of time-symmetric quantization (TSQ), where the probability of states is positive. In TSQ, the consequences of the SF interpretation are taken into account consecutively and it is shown that: a) the negative sign of the norm of states only changes the sign of the wave function, and not the probabilities b) the expression of backward in time integrals through the forward in time integrals changes sign c) the time ordering of the operators is symmetric in time and writing them through the usual ordering leads to the standard diagram technique. For this reason, TSQ correctly describes the known observable effects. In TSQ, the results of unification models change, in particular, a) for complex fields there is no zero-point energy even with broken supersymmetry b) there is no zero-point energy of modes in string theories, which allows to include gravity, but there is no a conformal anomaly and the dimension of space can be arbitrary.

QUANTUM AND GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS

ISSN 2181-0486 EISSN 2181-0508

4:023, 17 p., 26.05.2023 © 2023 CTPA. All rights reserved

doi:10.9751/QGPH.4-023.8181 **Download pdf**