3:016 24.01.2022 ISSN 2181-0486 EISSN 2181-0508

Zahid Zakir


The metric around a ball with a surface charge, obtained from the Einstein-Maxwell equations, has three independent parameters – the charge, surface radius and the ball’s gravitational radius, equal to the gravitational radius of the matter. The electrostatic energy there is only outside the ball and contributes to the metric with the same sign as matter. Therefore, an increase in charge enhances the effects of gravity, increasing redshifts, the radii of orbits and shadow. At the collapse, in the rest frame of the center, the surface freezes above the ball’s gravitational radius, and the inner layers freeze above the gravitational radius of the matter inside them, i.e. the collapsed ball becomes not a black hole, but a frozar, an object with a gravitationally frozen structure. The frozar’s metric follows from the ball’s metric as its surface tends to the gravitational radius and thus contains two parameters instead of three. The frozar’s charge freezes over the gravitational radius and its total mass, as for the ball, is finite. Observable consequences of the frozar metric are the same as for the ball. On the contrary, the Reissner-Nordström metric, used in the black hole theory, contains the total mass at infinity, which depends on the charge and diverges, since it includes the energy of the electric field diverging for a point charge. To ignore this divergence, the total mass was renormalized and replaced with an “observable” mass. Then, already erroneously, the dependence of the total mass on the charge was missed. The result of this double disregard was a set of unphysical consequences, inverse to the ball, which complicated the physical picture. It was argued that there are two horizons and the increase in charge weakens the gravity by decreasing the gravitational radius and observable effects of gravity, such as redshifts, radii of orbits and shadow, i.e. it was seriously stated that the positive energy of the electric field antigravitates, which is physically absurd. Other non-physical aspects of the black hole theory are also discussed.