Slowing time cosmology solving the double redshift paradox

Zahid Zakir  (ORCID)

Abstract

In static space, the redshift of photons from the receding sources is related by the Doppler effect. In the expanding space, the sources in our rest frame emit without the Doppler redshift, but along the path wavelengths of photons will experience a redshift due to stretching. Photons from the comoving the expansion sources are emitted with Doppler redshifts in our rest frame, and along the path they acquire stretching redshift also, and thus their redshift turns out to be doubled. This is clear for nearby sources, where there is both stretching and the Doppler redshifts, and only the quadratic Doppler effect will be added for distant sources. A similar doubling occurred with the deflection angle of the rays w.r.t. the Newtonian one due to the curvature of space. This double redshift paradox in expanding space is unsolvable in Friedmann’s models with a constant rate of proper times. It is shown that the models of slowing time cosmology (STC) solve this paradox. The observed redshifts contain the contribution of only one of the two effects, and this indicates the presence of a third effect with a violetshift, which compensates the contribution of one of the redshifts. In STC, proper times rate in the past were faster and photons were emitted with an initial violetshift, compensated along the path by the stretching redshift. The observed redshift is then associated only with the Doppler effect, in addition the visible luminosities become dimmer due to relativistic aberration. Observations already in the linear part of the distance dependence of redshifts reject the models with Friedmann’s metric, leading to double redshift, and agree only with the STC. The basic relations of STC are presented, including the “distance modulus-redshift” relation describing observational data without dark energy. A modified picture of evolution in early epochs and the CMB properties are discussed. In particular, in STC the light speed in the past was faster and this solves the cosmological problems of the previous models (homogeneity, horizon, flatness, etc.).

QUANTUM AND GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS
1:008, 20 p, 08.08.2020; doi:10.9751/QGPH.1-008.7160
ISSN 2181-0486; EISSN 2181-0508
©2020 CTPA. All rights reserved

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