**Abstract**

In general relativity, the stretching of the wavelengths of photons in the expanding universe occurs along the path and does not depend on the velocity of the source. Therefore, the photons from the sources at rest relative to us did not have, and from the sources comoving the expansion there was an initial Doppler redshift, and then on the way both photon fluxes acquired a stretching redshift. As the result, the redshift of the comoving the expansion sources should be at least doubled. But observations show a single redshift already in the linear part, and therefore in cosmological models only with redshifts (Friedmann’s and others) there was the double redshift problem with one hundred percent discrepancy between theory and observations. The observational fact of single redshifts means that the photons should have an initial violetshift, which was compensated for along the way by one of two types of redshift. In the model of slowing time cosmology (STC) proposed in 2020, the rate of proper times was higher in earlier epochs, which led to the violetshift, compensated along the way by the stretching redshift. As a result, in STC the observed shift is reduced to the initial Doppler redshift, to which the gravitational redshift is added for distant objects. The relativistic aberration then leads to dimming of the apparent luminosities. The basic relations of STC are presented, including the “distance modulus – redshift”, which are consistent with observations at new values of cosmological parameters. Evolution in early epochs and its influence on the properties of CMB are also discussed. In STC the light velocity was higher in the past and for this reason it has no previously known cosmological problems.

QUANTUM AND GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS2:012, 20 p., 16.08.2021; doi:10.9751/QGPH.2-012.7533 | ISSN 2181-0486 EISSN 2181-0508 ©2021 CTPA. All rights reserved |

[1]*Center for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics**, Tashkent Uzbekistan*, zzakir@qgph.org, ORCID

**Abstract**

A consistent theory of gravitational redshift in cosmology (GRC) is formulated. The global GRC arises due to weakening of gravitational time dilation due to decreasing of matter density during the propagation time of photons. In the expanding world the local GRC arises due to the weakening of gravity of the sphere between observer and source, since photons emitted at a smaller radius arrive at a larger one. In static world there is no GRC at the exchange of photons at the periphery of this sphere. In any case photons from observer to source have the same GRC as photons from source to observer, which is in agreement with the cosmological principle. Consequences of the local and global GRC for cosmological models and their parameters, as well as corrections to data on distant objects and CMB, are considered. In Appendix the inconsistency of two former treatments of the gravitational frequency shift in cosmology is shown. They: a) did not take into account the global GRC; b) derived the local GRC not from the field of the sphere between the source and observer, but from the field of spheres around one of them; c) contradicted each other (the signs of shifts are opposite); d) violated cosmological principle (changing the propagation direction changes the sign of shift) and e) were based on the delusion that the Friedmann model supposedly contains the gravitational shift.

QUANTUM AND GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS2:011, 11 p, 11.08.2021; doi:10.9751/QGPH.2-011.7528 | ISSN 2181-0486;EISSN 2181-0508 ©2021 CTPA. All rights reserved |

[1]*Center for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics**, Tashkent Uzbekistan*, zzakir@qgph.org, ORCID

The book published by CTPA contains a systematic presentation of a new paradigm, some elements of which was proposed by the author in 2006-2021.

In the first part the methodological principles of physics are described from a new point of view.

The proposals for revisiting of the basic physical theories are based on the author’s articles in the journal Quantum and Gravitational Physics in 2020-2021.

The publication of printed edition is planned in 2021. You can subscribe to the first edition of the book by sending E-mail to info@qgph.org .

]]>The book published by CTPA contains a systematic presentation of a new formulation of relativistic theory.

The local relativity represents a localized version of special relativity and it is applicable to inertial and non-inertial frames in flat and curved spacetimes.

The global relativity studies extended objects and fields in flat and curved spacetimes by describing their structure as a set of simultaneously coexisting set of their local elements, i.e. on the basis of solutions of Einstein equations on the hypersurfaces of simultaneity.

Based on the author’s articles in the journal Quantum and Gravitational Physics in 2020-2021.

The publication of printed edition is planned in 2021. You can subscribe to the first edition of the book by sending E-mail to info@qgph.org .

]]>**Abstract**

Special and general theories of relativity consist in describing both local and global phenomena – the first in flat, and the second in curved spacetime. In the paper it is shown that each of these two classes of relativistic effects, local and global, is universal and is the subject of a separate theory. First, descriptions in local frames of reference, related by the local Lorentz transformations, form the local theory of relativity, or local relativity (LR). The locality principle allows to apply LR to non-inertial local frames, and the equivalence principle to the local frames in gravitational field. Secondly, descriptions in global frames of reference, constructed from local frames coexisting on a common hypersurface of simultaneity, form the global theory of relativity, or global relativity (GlR). LR and GlR are based on physical coordinates and complement each other, the special and general theories of relativity were hybrids of these two theories. LR and GlR describe the local and global properties of gravity, separating the field effects from the effects of motion by different methods, such as bimetric formalism, where one metric describes geometry of the global frames, and other describes spacetime geometry. It is shown that GlR leads to a picture of collapse with formation of frozars, and also leads to a cutoff of the loop integrals of quantum fields at the Planck length. In GlR, cosmological models are built on hypersurfaces of simultaneity, where both stretching and the Doppler effect contribute to redshifts, and aberration is also taken into account. Predicted an initial violetshift removing the double redshift paradox, and this leads to the slowing time cosmology consistent with observational data.

QUANTUM AND GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS 1:010, 20p, 28.11.2020; doi:10.9751/QGPH.1-010.7272 | ISSN 2181-0486;EISSN 2181-0508 ©2020 CTPA. All rights reserved |

[1] *Center
for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics**, Tashkent Uzbekistan*, zzakir@qgph.org, ORCID

**Abstract**

In quantum and gravitational physics, a large set of fundamental problems have accumulated over the past hundred years, which shows the incompleteness of the formation of basic theories. In the paper solutions a number of such problems, presented by the author recently, is reviewed. Unlike other hypothesis-based attempts, the new solutions are based on physical principles and empirical facts, which makes the new formulations of basic theories more consistent. Problems of a “technical” nature, arising due to deviations from known principles, are solved by consistently following them. Other problems were solved by introducing new principles or changing old ones, but also on the basis of facts. Consequently, these solutions in this or a more refined form will enter the new physics initiated by them. The contours and prospects of this new physics are considered. The reasons of the long time crisis in fundamental physics and ways to overcome it are discussed. It is shown that the main reason for the crisis were deviations from the methodology and ethics of natural sciences, and the new physics began to form as a result of the return to them.

QUANTUM AND GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS 1:009, 54p, 16.11.2020; doi:10.9751/QGPH.1-009.7260 | ISSN 2181-0486; EISSN 2181-0508 ©2020 CTPA. All rights reserved |

[1] *Center
for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics**, Tashkent Uzbekistan*, zzakir@qgph.org, ORCID

**Abstract**

In static space, the redshift of photons from the receding sources is related by the Doppler effect. In the expanding space, the sources in our rest frame emit without the Doppler redshift, but along the path wavelengths of photons will experience a redshift due to stretching. Photons from the comoving the expansion sources are emitted with Doppler redshifts in our rest frame, and along the path they acquire stretching redshift also, and thus their redshift turns out to be doubled. This is clear for nearby sources, where there is both stretching and the Doppler redshifts, and only the quadratic Doppler effect will be added for distant sources. A similar doubling occurred with the deflection angle of the rays w.r.t. the Newtonian one due to the curvature of space. This double redshift paradox in expanding space is unsolvable in Friedmann’s models with a constant rate of proper times. It is shown that the models of slowing time cosmology (STC) solve this paradox. The observed redshifts contain the contribution of only one of the two effects, and this indicates the presence of a third effect with a violetshift, which compensates the contribution of one of the redshifts. In STC, proper times rate in the past were faster and photons were emitted with an initial violetshift, compensated along the path by the stretching redshift. The observed redshift is then associated only with the Doppler effect, in addition the visible luminosities become dimmer due to relativistic aberration. Observations already in the linear part of the distance dependence of redshifts reject the models with Friedmann’s metric, leading to double redshift, and agree only with the STC. The basic relations of STC are presented, including the “distance modulus-redshift” relation describing observational data without dark energy. A modified picture of evolution in early epochs and the CMB properties are discussed. In particular, in STC the light speed in the past was faster and this solves the cosmological problems of the previous models (homogeneity, horizon, flatness, etc.).

QUANTUM AND GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS 1:008, 20 p, 08.08.2020; doi:10.9751/QGPH.1-008.7160 | ISSN 2181-0486; EISSN 2181-0508 ©2020 CTPA. All rights reserved |

**Abstract**

The Oppenheimer-Snyder (OS) solution of the Einstein equations for a homogeneous dust star at a parabolic velocity (k = 0), as well as the solution for elliptic velocity (k = + 1), obtained by O. Klein and S. Weinberg by two other methods, describe the collapse in the Schwarzschild coordinates r, t. In the paper a complete solution of the dust star collapse is given by these three methods for all three velocities preserving the homogeneity – parabolic, elliptic and hyperbolic (k = 0, ± 1). The plots of worldlines, visualizing the internal structure of the star on the hypersurfaces of simultaneity t=const., are presented. They show that for large but finite t, when the surface freezes asymptotically over the star’s gravitational radius, each inner layer also freezes near its asymptote, corresponding to the effective gravitational radius for a given layer. As a result, the collapse of the star leads to the formation of the frozar, a frozen star with a completely frozen internal structure. In the late stages of collapse, when local velocities are close to the light velocity, differences in initial velocities are insignificant and all solutions tend to be parabolic. Therefore, after freezing, the observed effects are similar to those which was studied in the first paper.

QUANTUM AND GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS 1-007, 23 p, 12.07.2020; doi:10.9751/QGPH.1-007.7133 | ISSN 2181-0486; EISSN 2181-0508 © 2020 CTPA. All rights reserved |

**Abstract**

As a star collapses, positions of its particles, as for any extended object, must be set on the hypersurfaces of simultaneity t = const., marked by world time moments t, i.e. ordinary astronomical time around a star. Then the surface of a dust star freezes over its gravitational radius and such asymptotic behaviour of the worldlines of star’s particles on the surface is invariant. The star’s center freezes before other layers, after which the entire structure of the star quickly freezes. This means that a specifically general relativistic phenomenon – gravitational time dilation – is the physical mechanism that stops the collapse in terms of t. Such freezing is shown for exactly solvable models. A thin shell freezes outside its gravitational radius, its interior remains flat, and the test particles inside also freeze. A homogeneous dust star, as shows the Oppenheimer-Snyder solution in terms t, becomes a frozen star or frozar. The inner layers remain locally homogeneous and freeze near their asymptotes. Before the freezing, sufficiently massive stars have a density below a neutron star and, therefore, if their nuclei have not exploded before, the collapse of such stars occur like a dust star with the frozar formation. The rotation of stars freezes even before the surface reaches the ergosphere boundary, so the rotated frozar has not a horizon and an ergosphere. Accretion to frozar leads to freezing of the falling matter above the surface with formation of an inhomogeneous landscape of flattened mascons. Frozars do not merge, but only stick together near the gravitational radius of the multifrozar system, by forming, together with ordinary matter, a frozar cluster. Supermassive frozars, or superfrozars, are formed mainly as such heterogeneous clusters. Frozars and their clusters are not “bald”, but may have a “hairstyle” and an asymmetric structure. The inhomogeneities of their field can be detected by gravimetry, inhomogeneities of shadows, redshifts and orbits of matter. Observational consequences and prospects of the frozar theory are discussed.

QUANTUM AND GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS 1-006, 27p, 11.07.2020; doi:10.9751/QGPH.1-006.7132 | ISSN 2181-0486; EISSN 2181-0508 ©2020 CTPA. All rights reserved |

The book published by CTPA contains a systematic presentation of a new

theory of collapse of relativistic stars.

The theory of frozars studies stellar collapse by describing the structure of the entire star as a set of simultaneously coexisting set of its particles, i.e. on the basis of solutions of Einstein equations on the hypersurfaces of simultaneity. This treatment was founded in 1939 by Oppenheimer and Snyder in their exact solution for a dust star, and then more clearly formulated and developed in the articles of the author in 2006-2021.

The publication of printed edition is planned in 2021.

You can subscribe to the first edition of the book by sending E-mail to

info@qgph.org .